Victoria will play Tasmania at Sydney's Bankstown Oval on Tuesday, followed by clashes with South Australia (October 4) and NSW (October 7).
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The 46-Test veteran Siddle hasn't played a domestic one-dayer since February 2012 and his last one-day international appearance was in 2010.
Victoria will be led by new skipper Matthew Wade, who has been replaced in Australia's ODI side by NSW gloveman Brad Haddin for the tour of India in October.
"We're excited to have (spinner) Jon Holland back from extended injury and Peter Siddle, who is keen to explore opportunities to further represent his country in the World Cup next summer," Victoria coach Greg Shipperd said.
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Legspinner and Test hopeful Fawad Ahmed is also in Victoria's squad.
Glenn Maxwell, Clint McKay, Dan Christian and former Victoria skipper Cameron White are all unavailable due to Champions League Twenty20 commitments, while pacemen James Pattinson and Jayde Herrick are injured.
Victoria one-day squad: Matthew Wade (capt), Fawad Ahmed, Scott Boland, Aaron Finch, Peter Handscomb, John Hastings, Michael Hill, Jon Holland, David Hussey, Alexander Keath, Rob Quiney, Will Sheridan, Peter Siddle, Marcus Stoinis.